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The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) generates state-level estimates for 23 measures of substance use and mental health problems for four age groups: the entire state population over the age of 12 (12+); individuals age 12 to 17; individuals age 18 to 25; and individuals age 26 and older (26+). Since state estimates of substance use and abuse were first generated using the combined 2002-2003 NSDUHs and continuing until the most recent state estimates based on the combined 2005-2006 surveys, Illinois rates of many drug use measures have consistently been at or below the national rates for al age groups. These include: past month il icit drug use, past month and past year marijuana use; past month use of an il icit drug other than marijuana; and past year nonmedical use of pain relievers. Illinois rates of alcohol use, however, have general y been at or above the national rates for all age groups and across all survey years.
Abuse and Dependance
Questions in NSDUH are used to classify persons as being dependent on or abusing specific substances based on criteria specified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) (American Psychiatric Association, 1994).
Rates of past year alcohol dependence in Illinois have typically been above the national rate for all age groups and across all survey years (Chart 1).
Conversely, rates of past year drug dependence have typically been at or below the national rates for all age groups and across all survey years (Chart 2).
Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities
According to the 2006 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS),2 the majority of facilities in 2006 (338 or 58%) were private nonprofit. Another 221 facilities (37%) were private for-profit, and the remainder were owned or operated by Federal, State, or local government. Since 2002, the number of treatment facilities in Illinois has decreased from 608 in 2002,to 588 in 2006.
Although facilities may offer more than one modality of care, in 2006 the majority of facilities (526 or 89%) offered some form of outpatient treatment. Additionally, 107 facilities (18%) offered some form of residential care. In addition, 63 facilities offered an opioid treatment program, and 221 physicians and 64 programs were certified to provide buprenorphine treatment for opiate addiction.
In 2006, 53 percent of all facilities (311) received some form of Federal, State, county, or local government funds, and 248 facilities (42%) had agreements or contracts with managed care organizations for the provision of substance abuse treatment services.
State treatment data for substance use disorders are derived from two primary sources'an annual 1-day census in N-SSATS and annual treatment admissions from the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS).3 The 2006 N-SSATS survey showed an one-day total of 43,724 clients in treatment, the majority of whom (39,900 or 91%) were in outpatient treatment. Of the total number of clients in treatment on this date, 4,404 (10%) were under the age of 18.
Chart 3 shows the percent of admissions mentioning particular drugs or alcohol at the time of admission.4 Across the last 15 years, there has been a steady decline in the number of admissions mentioning alcohol (80% vs. 57%) and an increase in the percent of admissions mentioning heroin (11% vs. 19%).
Across the years for which TEDS data are available, Illinois has seen a substantial shift in the constellation of problems present at treatment admission. Alcohol-only admissions have declined from 34 percent of all admissions in 1992, to 17 percent in 2006. Concomitantly, drug-only admissions have increased from 18 percent in 1992, to 43 percent in 2006 (Chart 4).
Unmet Need For Treatment
NSDUH defines unmet treatment need as an individual who meets the criteria for abuse of or dependence on illicit drugs or alcohol according to the DSM-IV, but who has not received specialty treatment for that problem in the past year.
Rates of unmet need for drug treatment in Illinois have generally been at or below the national rates for all age groups and across all survey years (Charts 5).
Rates of unmet need for alcohol treatment, on the other hand, have generally been at or above the national rates for all age groups and across all survey years (Chart 6).